See installed version and basic info

$ docker version
$ docker info

Run a container

$ docker run hello-world

See list of containers

$ docker ps

Adding --all option shows all containers (by default it only shows containers running at this moment).

See list of downloaded container images

$ docker images

Remove container and delete downloaded image

$ docker container rm e1e7df81882c
$ docker image rm hello-world:latest

Step by step for Postgres

  1. Download image for Postgres 13:

     $ docker pull postgres:13
    
  2. Install psql client:

     $ sudo apt install -y postgresql-client
    
  3. Run Postgres container:
    • -e indicates we are passing an environment variable
    • -p sets up ports: 5433:5432 means port 5432 in container will be exposed and found as port 5433 from outside
    • -d says we want a detached execution
     $ docker run --name some-postgres -e POSTGRES_PASSWORD=mysecretpassword -p 5433:5432 -d postgres:13
    
  4. Connect from psql using port indicated in first place in previous command:

     $ psql -p 5433 -h localhost -U postgres
    

    185.199.110.133